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January 31, 2005

The Politics of Branding

Tucker Foehl points out this interview with Naomi Klein. Her thoughts on the anti-war movement, the state of Iraq, the failure of the left, and basically everything else are worth reading in full, but this caught my eye:

So what the Republican Party has done is that it has co-branded with other powerful brands — like country music, and NASCAR, and church going, and this larger proud-to-be-a-redneck identity. Policy is pretty low on the agenda, in terms of why people identify as Republicans. They identify with these packets of attributes.

This means a couple of things. One, it means people are not swayed by policy debates. But more importantly, when George Bush's policies are attacked, rather than being dissuaded from being Republicans, Republicans feel attacked personally — because it's your politics. Republicanism has merged with their identity. That has happened because of the successful application of the principles of identity branding.

Klein, of course, is an expert on branding, having written No Logo, the seminal book on the subject. And her thoughts here prove her expertise, she's absolutely right. Over the past 30 years, Republicans have successfully merged identity with politics, the importance of which is almost impossible to overstate. When your party affiliation becomes enmeshed with your sense of self, attacks on your candidate become attacks on your person, and thus ends any hope of being convinced out of your position. No longer are you dealing with policy or evaluating arguments, now your personal defenses are up, your worth is being called into question, and the rightness of your original position is transcendentally important.

Democrats, for our part, have failed to notice this phase shift happening. While we sat around the campfire agog at the Christian culture warriors sucker-punching their self-interest and focusing on trivialities, we missed that they were focusing on what moves them. It's a point Michelle Cottle makes in her excellent critique of Jim Wallis. While liberal evangelicals make a compelling logical case for Christians to focus on poverty rather than penetration, they miss that sex is simply a more interesting and visceral topic, it grabs people better. That's why television is packed with shows focusing on bedrooms while only one focuses on the Roosevelt Room, and even it throws in sexual subplots and features conversations conducted during breakneck sprints through the halls. Same goes for the public sphere, where the titillating easily triumphs over the technocratic and, by involving people on a deeper, more moral level, increases their self-identification with whoever they judge their allies.

Democrats are right to want to focus on health care and the kitchen table. But virtue only counts once elections are won. While Democrats have retained their focus on traditional social targets, Republicans have moved towards focusing on the dramatic aspects of the public sphere, either those associated with culture or those associated with safety. They, not us, embraced Hollywood's values, focusing on fighting and fucking while Democrats continued exciting audiences with stirring invocations of Medicare. And as Democrats became more theoretically correct (all the polls show our domestic platform's popularity), our audiences became more detached. Sure they agreed, but damn were they bored. Republicans, at the same time, kept hammering at primal desires and fears and getting their base more invested, making them feel each election and loss was more climactic and high-stakes. It took the overwhelming hatred of a Republican incumbent to return the fire to the Democratic base, but by then we'd lost too many voters in the preceding years to win a turnout fight.

That's why branding matters. Kerry won the moderates, the independents, the unaffiliated. Those with a mind to make up went for the Democrat. But that group had dwindled over the years, as more and more voters had incorporated the Republican party into their identities. In 1992 and 1996, forign policy was silenced and the Republican candidates were technocrats unable to grab onto the hooks the party had placed in voters, but in every other recent election, decades of Republican branding triumphed. And it triumphed because Republicans understood the brand trumped the quality of the product. That they weren't focusing on the important issues, either for the country or themselves, was never important. Just as few iPods are used without their subpar but instantly identifiable white earbuds, few voters noticed that the issues they wanted weren't the ones that'd do them the most good. But the Republican Party certainly recognized that if you give the people what they want, you get to do what you want. The Democrats didn't. What a shame, then, that Al Gore spent 2000 listening to Naomi Wolf and not Naomi Klein. Maybe if he'd picked the latter we'd be living in a different country.

January 31, 2005 in Democrats, Republicans | Permalink

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» The Politics of Branding from Fiat Lux
Today's must-read link is Ezra Klein on the politics of branding. Although Democrats have often been called the party of identity politics (in the sense that a significant part of Democratic party politics has been built... [Read More]

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» Branding = Politics 2.0 from Oliver Willis
Ezra hooks into the OW evangelism.

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» Nelly & Tim McGraw are Better People Than Us from Oft-Yielding Optimist
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» The brand experience journey from The Republic of Heaven
Astute RoH readers may recall an early post in which I commented on the strength of the Republican brand identity. Americans poll consistently with Democrats on issues, yet many recoil from the label "liberal" and vote Republican....[S]elling a p... [Read More]

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» What are we fighting for? from E Pluribus Unum
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Comments

You know, this is exactly the reason I supported Dean during his run. The man knew branding, and was doing his best to make the discussion about style, rather than substance.

I suppose it comes from my years as a classical studies majors, but I've always felt that leaders don't lead on ideas, they lead on bread and circuses. Keep the public amused, and you're golden. It's how Clinton kept such a huge approval rating during the impeachment thing, and why he pissed the GOP off so much. For the life of them, they couldn't figure how he retained so much popularity, but it was for one fact--he was branded, and had the style that kept people entertained.

I saw Dean doing the same thing. I mean, the policies that I agreed with were a nice bonus, but mainly, it was for the cult of personality that he was developing. Give it some time after the primaries to develop, and for all the talk about the scream, or whatever, I think he could have won.

Because policies stopped mattering a long...well, truthfully, they've never mattered. Oh, people like to say that they do, but it's not true. It's all identity politics.

So why did Kerry win the primaries? Because, I suspect, that Dems are more idealistic, and want to live in a world where policies matter, and some sort of mythical gravitas matters, and people get elected on experience and wisdom. And so, instead of the rock star, they chose the teacher.

At least, that's my theory on the subject. I say we just need a lot more rock stars in the Dem party. One of the reasons I love Obama so much...the man has charisma to spare....which is why he should run in 2008. Experience be damned, because it doesn't matter.

Posted by: BJ Chavez | Jan 31, 2005 3:45:32 PM

While out campaigning, Adlai Stephenson ran into a man who shouted out:
"All thinking people are behind you!"

Ever quick on his feet, he response was:
"That's great! But we need a majority."

Posted by: Eric in Detroit | Jan 31, 2005 3:51:38 PM

While I never branded it branding; this is so right on the money. I have posted this vein of thought to numerous discussion/message boards and in the comments of a number of blogs. They never got it. I was flamed, bashed and trounced and I shut up.

While I do agree for the most part and in principle with the intellectual liberal that frequents the liberal blogs and the authors of same; they for the most part have not a clue of the thinking and how to relate or reach the average Joe Six-Pack or his wife shopping the Wal-Mart isles in knit sweat pants and 3X large tee shirt.

They have neither desire nor any intent to understand the details of the Social Security debate. There is no devil in the details. They are going to cheer the republicans at NASCAR races. Watch Stepford Wives and sit-up late to catch soft porn on Cinemax while condemning the evils of gays.

At least in the south, if the democrats desire to win in the south, somehow they are going to have to come up with a brand that can be consumed by these voters. Before liberal blogs and others continue to spew the constant “in depth analysis” of a “new direction for the democrats” they really, really, really need to spend a month down on the farm.

Dean understood this, remember the confederate flag flap? And he was trounced by east and west coast liberals. New York and California is not enough to win elections. You need Tennessee, North Carolina, and a few others as well.

Posted by: ETnGuy | Jan 31, 2005 4:07:49 PM

I think a big part of this, at the presidential level, is that they managed to come up with an ideal candidate for this whole business, with Bush. He had a pretty ideal combination of political brand name, anti-intellectual good ol' boy charm, and blank slate lack of any meaningful record. Pretty much all parts of the GOP coalition could project themselves onto him, one way or another.

Broad ideas about party politics are important, to be sure, but electing presidents still comes down to finding the right candidate for the right times. The GOP formula is obviously effective these days, but they can't just plug any old asshole into it and win. They need a particular kind of asshole for that.

Posted by: Haggai | Jan 31, 2005 4:21:32 PM

Not only is this true, I have actually seen it in action. A colleague of mine ran for a city council seat as a Republican. He had never been a Republican in his life, on paper or in practice. But all he had to do was change his voter registration by the deadline and file the application fee. He gave only one statement to a local paper, which was a brief and patently outrageous blip about being the only "real conservative" running (!), he never campaigned anywhere, never spent money on a yard sign or a sticker. He got unsolicited offers for contributions, which he turned down. He barely mentioned to coworkers that he was running. His opponent spoke at dozens of prayer breakfasts and Jaycee meetings and whatnot, interviewed with newspapers, got on the morning news chat. The fake Republican won, simply on straight party line ticket votes. As a city councilman, he could hardly be described as "conservative", but no one ever questions what he is up to. He'll probably win again.

Posted by: sprocket | Jan 31, 2005 4:41:38 PM

"And it triumphed because Republicans understood the brand trumped the quality of the product."

Perfectly articulated, Ezra. Obviously the same thing can be said for current culture trends as well i.e. any relatively new Snoop Dogg music (Pimp - those who aren't...), John Mayer (Romeo - girls looking for knight on horse), etc.

You buy into an image that you relate to and in the case of politics you vote for that image and in the case of music (for example), you buy Insane Clown Possee t-shirts.

Posted by: Steve | Jan 31, 2005 4:48:42 PM

There is a lot of wisdom in this post, Ezra, but don't forget the very important flipside of this coin: the Republicans have also done a great job of "branding" us Democrats as well. We Democrats are branded as elistist, know-it-all, arrogant, espresso-drinking, hippie atheists. This can lead to an interesting syndrome I encountered with my brother, who leans heavily conservative, but still thinks for himself sometimes: He didn't like Bush, but could not possibly imagine voting for Kerry, because Kerry is a "liberal". Thus he found himself in the very strange position of voting for Bush, but hoping Kerry would win (he wanted Kerry to be President, but didn't want such a travesty to actually be his "fault"). Now that, my friends, is some effective negative branding.

Posted by: Sean in Atlanta | Jan 31, 2005 4:59:28 PM

What Sean said. My dad hates Bush darned near as much as I do. And he lied to his wife for a week after the elections, saying that he'd voted for Kerry before finally admitting that he couldn't bring himself to vote for a liberal and, in the end, voted for Bush even though he disagrees with the president on almost every issue. He also is incapable of listening to reason. During the primaries I would talk about Howard Dean, who I think would have been a very comfortable candidate for my dad, and I, of course, loved. But dad again couldn't get past that branding. He was disturbed that Dean said the U.S. was no safer after the capture of Saddam Hussein *even though my dad agreed the Iraq War was pointless*. He still refuses to believe Dean wasn't a bleeding-heart liberal despite the fact I have explained repeatedly that Dean was portrayed that way primarily for opposing the war my dad opposed.

Honestly, it makes my head hurt.

Posted by: Magenta | Jan 31, 2005 5:32:25 PM

Great post, Ezra. The only thing I would add is that the idea to associate personal identity and political affiliation is nothing new. As far back as 1969, “the personal is political” has been a tenet of the feminist movement, ever since Carol Hanisch wrote an essay of the same name. Lefty women have believed this for years; it’s part of the reason that personal beliefs about reproductive rights and political affiliation are so inextricably linked. We take it for granted these days, but it wasn’t always so. Women were the ones most affected by the legalization of the birth control pill and abortion, etc., and on which side of the debate they fell became an integral part of how they viewed themselves (and, more importantly, each other). They ended up identifying with the party that addressed their personal identities. (Much of the same can be said for the gay rights movement.)

I don’t know that the Democrats have failed, as you suggest, to notice this trend. This trend started with Lefties—anyone who has been marginalized (women, people of color, gays and lesbians, etc.) know without much heady analysis that the personal is political, and identifying certain feelings with a political party is often more important than underlying policy. (Clinton’s DOMA was not significantly different from the proposed FMA, but there’s certainly a different feeling about the two in general, isn’t there?)

I think the real problem is that the Democratic Party has failed to be as progressive as many of the parts that form its whole.

I have little doubt that a rich white straight conservative male has much issue reaching out to a poor white straight conservative male. No one’s going to blink at Tom DeLay showing up at a NASCAR event. I also have little doubt that there are many Dems who feel uncomfortable reaching out to many of their constituencies. Who would you send to a Vaginal Davis show? :-)

Posted by: Shakespeare's Sister | Jan 31, 2005 5:46:39 PM

Even in 1969, this phenomenon was nothing new; gilded age politics was very much a tribal politics where people's partisan identity was deeply ingrained in their sense of self.

Posted by: aphrael | Jan 31, 2005 5:59:10 PM

ETGuy -- Word. That's why I'm so happy to see him moving to the front of the DNC Chair pack. I think Dean had fatal perception problems as a candidate (click over in the "Published Pieces" sideabr and read "Power Trippi" for more on that), but I think he personally understood the game on a level few do. Let's hope he keeps it together, eh?

Shakespeare's Sister -- Great points. The connection with identity politics is really important. Problem though, for the Democrats, is that with so many identities, they can't create a super-identity with the same emotional cache. Republicans, conversely, have created this "real American" template that a broad swath of voters can connect into.

Posted by: Ezra | Jan 31, 2005 10:29:55 PM

How about this as a Democrat brand: "Freedom lovin' jackasses"

Gets to the core of Democratic values while being somewhat self effacing.

Posted by: Porco Rosso | Jan 31, 2005 11:43:14 PM

Yeah, well...

Authoritarian rhetoric, like its silly offshoot fascism, makes strong appeals to emotion sans either an intellectually articulate ideology or a reasonable (fact-based) argument.

The Bush administration has obviously grasped the fundamental import of Nazi rhetoric as laid down by Goerring:

"It is always simply a matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. The people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the peacemakers for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country."

Again: such use of language is engineered to provoke an emotional response, not thoughtful or reasoned debate.

Posted by: Ranty | Jan 31, 2005 11:55:57 PM

You know, I was all set to disagree with Naomi's argument: usully, I have no time for those who say that Republican voters are just fools, or are too dumb to listen to reason. But then I read her argument, and wow, I take it all back. This isn't about Republican voters being stupid, this about the effects of advertising and propaganda. They really can structure how we think with branding; the level of control that the media has over our minds is really scary. And Ezra's absolutely right when he mentions that politics has always been based on drama, and that that's not necessarily a bad thing. I'd take the view, for instance, that good politics is inherently dramatic. Why we've been avoiding drama for so long, I don't know. Honestly, I think Dean's scream could be really useful in this regard: it symbolizes frustration at the current state of things, and a willingness to fight about it. Good, dramatic, important-seeming politics is exactly the kind of branding we need. Vital, you know? Annihilate the Alan Colmes view of Liberalism, the ineffectual, dominated liberal that makes Sean Hannity seem like such a man. Honestly, who counciled us that non-confrontation was where it's at? Drama, baby!

Posted by: Padraig | Feb 1, 2005 12:24:12 AM

Padraig -- So was I. And if not dismiss, at least not be too interested in. Damn subconscious stereotypes, almost robbed me of a great piece!

Posted by: Ezra | Feb 1, 2005 3:18:56 AM

Policy does not matter. Get over that hump and we can start moving towards winning.

Posted by: Oliver | Feb 1, 2005 7:54:36 AM

Ranty,

Not even about fascism, necessary, although the Thugs are moving us that way.

I was out doing karaoke the other night and, as always, getting a chance to read the lyrics of pop songs whose words I'd otherwise rather ignore. In virtually every case -- whether we're talking Journey, U2, Toto, Madonna -- the lyrics made no sense at all. They made sweeping emotional gestures; they summoned evocative images (pop music as symbolist poetry?); and they connected, if not with me, with most of America. A few pop songs -- Eminem's 'Stan,' Simon and Garfunkel, later Beatles (I'm just drawing on Karaoke, now) -- do make sense, lyrically, but most don't.

Again, the Dems can draw a lesson from that.

Can they satisfy us thinking types and satisfy the types who really love Phil Collins?

Posted by: Karl the Idiot | Feb 1, 2005 9:50:40 AM

I agree about the branding being successful--especially the branding of the democrats as elitist liberals. I might argue though that branding works because times are generally good, we have our toys, and we're not forced to think....were more serious times to arise(or maybe better said--were more serious times to be acknowledged consciously) branding might look foolish.

Posted by: Steve Mudge | Feb 1, 2005 10:12:56 AM

Just to pick up on your most irrelevant detail ...

I use Sony earphones with my iPod. Two main reasons:

1) the wind-up case, which I prefer to carry in my pocket ratherthan loose wires.

2) when I'm on the subway, the black cord coming out of my pocket could be connected to anything -- a $20 cassette player, a $30 CD player, a $60 flash MP3 player. It's not necessarily hooked up to a $300 iPod. The white cord, OTOH, is pretty much a giveaway.

Posted by: Thlayli | Feb 1, 2005 11:29:51 AM

Ezra:

Problem though, for the Democrats, is that with so many identities, they can't create a super-identity with the same emotional cache.

Right. The big tent conundrum.

It creates the problem of constantly positioning ourselves as an alternative to the dominant brand (anyone who hates the Republicans - come check us out!). Pepsi's most notable attribute, after all, is that it's not Coke. And there's something to be said for that, but Pepsi still always comes in second.

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Posted by: peter.w | Sep 14, 2007 10:10:09 AM

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